Hobbes The Social Contract We give up our right to ourselves exact retribution for crimes in return for impartial justice backed by overwhelming force. We retain the right to life and liberty, and gain the right to just, impartial protection of our property If you shut up and do as you are told, you have the right not to be killed, and you do not even have the right not to be killed, for no matter what the Sovereign does, it does not constitute violation of the contract.
His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War.
His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London.
Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from until Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college.
One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature, was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers.
He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age.
He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in He also A discussion of private property by locke as the personal physician to Lord Ashley.
Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts.
The two earliest drafts of that work date from He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years.
The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government. Although the Two Treatises would not be published until they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government.
While there Locke travelled a great deal sometimes for his own safety and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay. Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia, which was published anonymously in Following the Glorious Revolution of Locke was able to return to England.
He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises the second anonymously shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex.
Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration.
Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters.
In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity, published again anonymously in This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary.
Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously.
A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor.
His health took a turn for the worse in and he became increasingly debilitated.Liberalism looms prominent in contemporary debates -- in this journal and elsewhere. But the term, however ubiquitous, remains elusive. By some, it is treated with cruel derision; by others, with breathtaking sanctimoniousness.
John Locke (–) is among the most influential political philosophers of the modern period. In the Two Treatises of Government, he defended the claim that men are by nature free and equal against claims that God had made all people naturally subject to a initiativeblog.com argued that people have rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and property, that have a foundation independent of.
John Locke FRS (/ l ɒ k /; 29 August – 28 October ) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory.
People and ideas systems As outlined by Andrew Roberts of Middlesex University, London. Introductory sketches of the ideas of theorists, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and the Society and Science History initiativeblog.comped from a course document "Outline of the theorists we could cover" (February ), the web .
John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government.
Liberalism looms prominent in contemporary debates -- in this journal and elsewhere. But the term, however ubiquitous, remains elusive. By some, it is treated with cruel derision; by others, with breathtaking sanctimoniousness.