His younger half-sister Katherine of Lancasterthe daughter of his father's second wife, Constance of Castilewas queen consort of the King of Castile.
On 12 AugustHenry sailed for France, where his forces besieged the fortress at Harfleurcapturing it on 22 September. Afterwards, Henry decided to march with his army across the French countryside towards Calais despite the warnings of his council. Despite his men-at-arms being exhausted, outnumbered and malnourished, Henry led his men into battle, decisively defeating the Frenchwho suffered severe losses.
It is often argued that the French men-at-arms were bogged down in the muddy battlefield, soaked from the previous night of heavy rain, and that this hindered the French advance, allowing them to be sitting targets for the flanking English and Welsh archers. Most were simply hacked to death while completely stuck in the deep mud.
During the battle,  Henry ordered that the French prisoners taken during the battle be put to death, including some of the most illustrious who could be used for ransom.
Cambridge historian Brett Tingley posits that Henry was concerned that the prisoners might turn on their captors when the English were busy repelling a third wave of enemy troops, thus jeopardising a hard-fought victory.
The victorious conclusion of Agincourt, from the English viewpoint, was only the first step in the campaign to recover the French possessions that he felt belonged to the English crown. Diplomacy and command of the sea[ edit ] Command of the sea was secured by driving the Genoese allies of the French out of the English Channel.
While Henry was occupied with peace negotiations ina French and Genoese fleet surrounded the harbour at the English-garrisoned Harfleur. A French land force also besieged the town.
The Franco-Genoese fleet was defeated the following day after a gruelling seven-hour battle and Harfleur was relieved. British LibraryLondon. With those two potential enemies gone, and after two years of patient preparation following the Battle of Agincourt, Henry renewed the war on a larger scale in Lower Normandy was quickly conquered and Rouen was cut off from Paris and besieged.
This siege cast an even darker shadow on the reputation of the king than his order to slay the French prisoners at Agincourt.
Rouen, starving and unable to support the women and children of the town, forced them out through the gates believing that Henry would allow them to pass through his army unmolested.
However, Henry refused to allow this, and the expelled women and children died of starvation in the ditches surrounding the town. The French were paralysed by the disputes between Burgundians and Armagnacs. Henry skilfully played them off one against the other without relaxing his warlike approach.
In JanuaryRouen fell. Those Norman French who had resisted were severely punished: Alain Blanchardwho had hanged English prisoners from the walls of Rouen, was summarily executed; Robert de Livet, Canon of Rouenwho had excommunicated the English king, was packed off to England and imprisoned for five years.
They had only one son, Henry, born on 6 December at Windsor Castle. He besieged and captured Melun in Novemberreturning to England shortly thereafter. The duke was killed in the battle.Henry IV: Henry IV, king of England from to , the first of three 15th-century monarchs from the house of Lancaster.
He gained the crown by usurpation and successfully consolidated his power in the face of repeated uprisings of powerful nobles.
However, he was unable to overcome the fiscal and. ACT I SCENE I.
London. The palace. Enter KING HENRY, LORD JOHN OF LANCASTER, the EARL of WESTMORELAND, SIR WALTER BLUNT, and others KING HENRY IV. Henry IV (April 3, – March 20, ) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland – He was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, hence, the other name by which he was known, Henry Bolingbroke.
His father, John of Gaunt, was the third son of Edward III, and enjoyed a. Henry IV deposed his cousin and made himself king of England. Henry's reign was marked by rebellion, a renewal of the war with France, and.
"An extraordinary accomplishment, combining deep scholarship with a strong narrative purpose to provide a compelling and vivid account of Henry IV’s life as noble, prince and king.
The reign of Henry IV is pivotal in later medieval English history, and Given-Wilson has given us a properly definitive account both of its events and of its wider. Henry I: Henry I, youngest and ablest of William I the Conqueror’s sons, who as king of England (–35) strengthened the crown’s executive powers and, like his father, also ruled Normandy (from ).
Henry was crowned at Westminster on Aug. 5, , three days after his brother, King William II, William.