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You must be signed in to bookmark pages. You must be signed into your pro account to make notes. Spondylolisthesis is the movement of one vertebra relative to the others in either the anterior or posterior direction due to instability.
The vertebrae can be divided into three portions: Centrum - involved in weight bearing. This is the body of the vertebra and is formed of cancellous bone. Dorsal arch - surrounds and protects the spinal cord. It carries the upper and lower facet joints of each vertebra which articulate with the facet joints of the vertebra above and below, respectively.
The part of the vertebral arch between them is the thinnest part and is called the pars interarticularis, or the isthmus. Posterior aspect - protrudes and can be palpated on the lower back.
Images by Anatomography, via Wikimedia Commons. Click here to see a lumbar vertebra 1 close-up superior surface animation. Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis are separate conditions, although spondylolysis often precedes spondylolisthesis.
Spondylolysis is a bony defect commonly due to a stress fracture but it may be a congenital defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebral arch, separating the dorsum of the vertebra from the centrum.
It may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. It most commonly affects the fifth lumbar vertebra and may cause back pain. Spondylolisthesis refers to the anterior slippage of one vertebra over another or the fifth vertebra over the sacrum. There are five forms: Spondylosis is a general term for degenerative osteoarthritic changes in the spine.
It involves dehydration of the intervertebral discs with consequent narrowing of the intervertebral spaces.
There may be changes in the facet joints with osteophyte formation and this may put pressure on the nerve roots, causing motor and sensory disturbance.
Spondylolysis is particularly a condition of young people, usually occurring between the ages of 6 and It is the most common cause of isthmic spondylolisthesis. There may be pre-existing weakness and this may be hereditary.
At-risk activities include gymnastics, diving, tennis, cricket, weightlifting, football and rugby. Boys are more commonly affected than girls. Degenerative spondylolisthesis is more common in older people, particularly women.Former Heisman Trophy winner and Pro Football Hall of Famer Barry Sanders, thought by some to be the greatest running back in history, is a classic example of a running back with an extraordinarily low center of gravity, as he stood only m (5 ft 7 1 ⁄ 2 in).
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