British Dictionary definitions for nature nature noun the fundamental qualities of a person or thing; identity or essential character often capital, esp when personified the whole system of the existence, arrangement, forces, and events of all physical life that are not controlled by man all natural phenomena and plant and animal life, as distinct from man and his creations a wild primitive state untouched by man or civilization natural unspoilt scenery or countryside disposition or temperament tendencies, desires, or instincts governing behaviour the normal biological needs or urges of the body sort; kind; character the real appearance of a person or thinga painting very true to nature accepted standards of basic morality or behaviour biology the complement of genetic material that partly determines the structure of an organism; genotypeCompare nurture def. Nature and nurture have been contrasted since Nature should be avoided in such vague expressions as 'a lover of nature,' 'poems about nature.
Two cognitions or actions consistent with each other e. Two cognitions or actions unrelated to Cognitive observation other e. Two cognitions or actions inconsistent with each other e.
The importance of cognitions: The greater the personal value of the elements, the greater the magnitude of the dissonance in the relation.
The proportion of dissonant-to-consonant elements. Reduction[ edit ] Cognitive dissonance theory proposes that people seek psychological consistency between their personal expectations of life and the existential reality of the world.
To function by that expectation of existential consistency, people continually reduce their cognitive dissonance in order to align their cognitions perceptions of the world Cognitive observation their actions.
The creation and establishment of psychological consistency allows the person afflicted with cognitive dissonance to lessen his or her mental stress by actions that reduce the magnitude of the dissonance, realised either by changing with or by justifying against, or by being indifferent to the existential contradiction that is inducing the mental stress.
Change the behavior or the cognition "I'll eat no more of this doughnut. The bias that one does not have any biases, the bias that one is "better, kinder, smarter, more moral, and nicer than average," and confirmation bias. A Longitudinal Analysis from the International Tobacco Control ITC Four Country Survey indicated that smokers use justification beliefs to reduce their cognitive dissonance about smoking tobacco and the negative consequences of smoking tobacco.
Continuing smokers Smoking and no attempt to quit since the previous round of study. Successful quitters Quit during the study and did not use tobacco from the time of the previous round of study.
Failed quitters Quit during the study, but relapsed to smoking at the time of the study. To reduce cognitive dissonance, the participant smokers adjusted their beliefs to correspond with their actions: Functional beliefs "Smoking calms me down when I am stressed or upset.
Common to each paradigm of cognitive-dissonance theory is the tenet: People invested in a given perspective shall—when confronted with disconfirming evidence—expend great effort to justify retaining the challenged perspective. Belief disconfirmation[ edit ] The disconfirmation contradiction of a belief, ideal, or system of values causes cognitive dissonance that can be resolved by changing the belief under contradiction; yet, instead of effecting change, the resultant mental stress restores psychological consonance to the person, by misperception, rejection, or refutation of the contradiction; seeking moral support from people who share the contradicted beliefs; or acting to persuade other people that the contradiction is unreal.
At the determined place and time, the cult assembled; they believed that only they would survive planetary destruction; yet the spaceship did not arrive to Earth. The disconfirmed prophecy caused them acute cognitive-dissonance: Had they been victims of a hoax?
Had they vainly donated away their material possessions? To resolve the dissonance, between apocalyptic, end-of-the-world religious beliefs and earthly, material realitymost of the cult restored their psychological consonance by choosing to hold a less mentally-stressful idea to explain the missed landing.
That the aliens had given planet Earth a second chance at existence, which, in turn, empowered them to re-direct their religious cult to environmentalism; social advocacy to end human damage to planet Earth.
Moreover, upon overcoming the disconfirmed belief by changing to global environmentalism, the cult increased in numbers, by successful proselytism. Yet, when he died of a stroke ininstead of accepting that their Rebbe was not the Messiah, some of the congregants proved indifferent to that contradictory fact and continued claiming that Schneerson was the Messiahand that he would soon return from the dead.
Forced compliance theory In the Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliancethe investigators Festinger and Merrill Carlsmith asked students to spend an hour doing tedious tasks; e.
The tasks were designed to induce a strong, negative, mental attitude in the subjects. Once the subjects had done the tasks, the experimenters asked one group of subjects to speak with another subject an actor and persuade that impostor-subject that the tedious tasks were interesting and engaging.
After performing dissonant behavior lying a person might find external, consonant elements. Therefore, a snake oil salesman might find a psychological self-justification great profit for promoting medical falsehoods, but, otherwise, might need to change his beliefs about the falsehoods.
The researchers, Festinger and Carlsmith, proposed that the subjects experienced dissonance, between the conflicting cognitions: The subjects paid twenty dollars were induced to comply by way of an obvious, external justification for internalizing the "interesting task" mental attitude and, thus, experienced a lesser degree of cognitive dissonance.
Upon leaving the room, the experimenter told one-half of the group of children that there would be severe punishment if they played with the steam-shovel toy; and told the second half of the group that there would be a mild punishment for playing with the forbidden toy. All of the children refrained from playing with the forbidden toy the steam shovel.
The children threatened with mild punishment had to justify, to themselves, why they did not play with the forbidden toy. The degree of punishment, in itself, was insufficiently strong to resolve their cognitive dissonance; the children had to convince themselves that playing with the forbidden toy was not worth the effort.
After playing alone, the control-group children later devalued the importance of the forbidden toy; however, in the variable group, classical music played in the background, while the children played alone. In that group, the children did not later devalue the forbidden toy. The researchers, Nobuo Masataka and Leonid Perlovsky, concluded that music might inhibit cognitions that reduce cognitive dissonance.George Orwell’s famous novel, , is a masterful fictional account of a state which imposes cognitive dissonance on its citizens to control their perception of reality.
Observational learning describes the process of learning through watching others, retaining the information, and then later replicating the behaviors that were observed. Children develop cognitive skills rapidly in the first few years of life and build on them progressively throughout grade school.
In this lesson, . natural scenery: Tourists at the resort are surrounded by nature. the universe, with all its phenomena: Conservation of energy is a universal law of nature. the sum total of the forces at work throughout the universe.
reality, as distinguished from any effect of art: a portrait true to nature.
the particular combination of qualities belonging to a person, animal, thing, or class by birth. Because learning is so complex, there are many different psychological theories to explain how and why people learn.
A psychologist named Albert Bandura proposed a social learning theory which suggests that observation, imitation, and modeling play a primary role in this process. Psychology, scientific discipline that studies mental states and processes and behaviour in humans and other animals..
The discipline of psychology is broadly divisible into two parts: a large profession of practitioners and a smaller but growing science of mind, brain, and social initiativeblog.com two have distinctive goals, training, and practices, but some psychologists integrate the two.