Why are cardiology researchers inventing bogus definitions of species-wide heart enlargement to test risky drugs? Diuretics, of course, would not be appropriate prior to congestive heart failure, because their purpose is to remove retained fluids from the lungs, a situation which does not exist until CHF occurs. In the past year, veterinary research publications have been focusing their medication advice upon MVD-affected dogs with enlarged hearts rather than those in CHF.
Aerial view of traffic on the Robert F. New York City was famously shaped by the powerful urban planner Robert Moses who, along with being a visionary, was demonstrably racist.
NYC is just one example of how systemic oppression affects the planning of cities across the country.
The fair housing laws passed in the last half-century have forced racists to devise whole new methods of discrimination, subtler but serving the same purpose: The villains in these cases—landlords, brokers and neighbors—are often tough to identify, but, once exposed, are easy to loathe.
It's harder to find fault with a sidewalk or a highway; when some feature of the city has seemingly always been there, you can lose sight of the fact that it was once new, conceived and constructed by people with their own inbuilt prejudices. But a city's landscape can exclude as effectively as any policy or person, in subtle but sinister ways.
Moses was, without qualification, a racist. As Caro writes, "Moses had always displayed contempt for people he felt were considerably beneath him," such as the "colored 'subject people' of the British Empire.
In contrast, the minimum vertical clearance for overhead structures on the Interstate Highway is 16 feet in rural areas and 14 feet in urban areas. Ariel video of the Long Island Overpass on southern parkway near hempstead Lake state park, November 21, This is one example of a bridge being built too low for public buses.
The clearance is 7 Feet 7 inches. Moses's discriminatory activity wasn't limited to Long Island. As Parks Commissioner of New York City, he imported his racist building methods to an area dense with people of color in need of relief from overcrowded neighborhoods.
He placed the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge's exit ramp there, when the sensible location would have been the Upper East Side, as almost all traffic at that time came from below th street.
Examples from outside New York City Palo Alto, California Crossing Highway to reach the wealthy West Palo Alto from low-income East Palo Alto is dangerous due to the presence of median barriers and the need to pass through numerous busy intersections; the area has one of the highest rates of car-pedestrian collisions.
The lack of secure pedestrian infrastructure makes areas more difficult to access in a safe and easy manner. Detroit, Michigan In Detroit ina private developer constructed a six-foot-high wall—known as Eight Mile Wall—to separate an existing black neighborhood from a soon-to-be constructed white one.
At the time, the Federal Housing Administration FHA provided financing for a new development project only if the neighborhood was sufficiently residential and racially segregated. The wall still exists today—and Detroit is the most racially segregated metropolitan area in the U. Memphis, Tennessee Inthe city closed a street that connected an all-white neighborhood to a primarily black one.
Supporters of this measure argued that it would ostensibly reduce traffic and noise, in addition to promoting safety. Supreme Court dismissed a challenge to this action. Baltimore, Maryland An eight-foot tall, spiked fence was installed in around a public housing project in Hollander Ridge in Baltimore.
Constructed by the local housing authority with funding from the Department of Housing and Urban Development HUDthis fence blocked access to and through Rosedale, a mostly white neighborhood.
The lack of public-transit connections to areas north of the city makes it difficult for those who rely on transit—primarily the poor and people of color—to access job opportunities located in those suburbs. Buffalo, New York Sometimes transit will allow a person to get close to a given area, but not all the way there, leaving the rider in a dangerous situation.
Cynthia Wiggins, a seventeen-year-old woman in Buffalo, was hit and killed by a dump truck while she was attempting to cross a seven-lane highway to get to the mall where she worked. Arlington Heights, a suburb of Chicago, was the focus of a landmark case that is often used as precedent to enforce the constitutionality of this practice.
New Orleans, Miami, Omaha and Charleston, West Virginia are just some examples of places where the highway has become a bulldozer. The Supreme Court has upheld that "urban blight" is an acceptable reason for eminent domain to be used. WikiCommons Where the subway track ends Moses provides the largest-scale examples of this type of discrimination, but its execution is hardly limited to a single 20th-century builder.
Who gets to be where in a city? And what are the different tools that are used to exclude people from public space? One such tool that D'Oca and his colleagues noticed involves parking.
Aerial view of the end of the A Train at rockaway beach, Queens, November 21, The area's more expensive real estate continues to the horizon. Many of those street signs, though, would have been telling the truth: Parking without a permit is indeed barred in many parts of the Rockaway's wealthy west end.
According to Jeanne DuPont, executive director of the Rockaway Waterfront Alliance, this is just one of a battery of infrastructural obstacles keeping the Rockaways' eastern residents from areas like Neponsit and Belle Harbor. As with Moses' overpasses, the issue boils down to transportation.
And yet the area's subway line terminates at th street, just a few blocks into the west end, which stretches all the way to th street.Malaika Stafrace Extended Diploma in Health and Social Care(Health Studies) YR1 GRP1 Discriminatory Practice in Health and Social Care Malaika Stafrace m Malaika Stafrace Extended Diploma in Health and Social Care(Health Studies) YR1 GRP1 P2: List and describe FOUR different discriminatory practices by the staff that might take place in this residential care home.
Over time, the effects of discrimination can alter the way the brain perceives information, which can cause a decline in cognitive function, planning capacity and the ability to make logical decisions.
Minorities cannot be racist. I’ll say it louder for the people in the back who did not hear me—minorities cannot be racist. Racism is the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to.
– FHA Mortgage Insurance Requirements Utilize Redlining Race and ethnicity are used to determine mortgage eligibility in communities such as Roxbury, Dorchester and Hyde Park, thus perpetuating housing segregation. A final example of discriminatory practice is in a hospital where a person is discriminated against because of they have been involved in drugs and smoking, the doctor refuses to give adequate treatment because they have stereotyped the person and believed that they don't care about their health or family.3/5.
SUBJECT: Enforcement Guidance on the Consideration of Arrest and Conviction Records in Employment Decisions Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of , as amended, 42 U.S.C. § e et seq.; PURPOSE: The purpose of this Enforcement Guidance is to consolidate and update the U.S.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's guidance documents regarding the use of arrest or conviction .