Bkmrk A remarkable watercolor by James J.
By the economic height of ancient Greece, in the fourth century B. According to some economic historians, it was one of the most advanced pre-industrial economies. This is demonstrated by the average daily wage of the Greek worker, it was, in terms of grain about 13 kgmore than 4 times the average daily wage of the Egyptian worker about 3 kg.
Social and political conflict The Greek cities were originally monarchiesalthough many of them were very small and the term king basileus for their rulers is misleadingly grand. In a country always short of farmland, power rested with a small class of landowners, who formed a warrior aristocracy fighting frequent petty inter-city wars over land and rapidly ousting the monarchy.
About this time, the rise of a mercantile class shown by the introduction of coinage in about B. By the sixth century B. AthensSpartaCorinth, and Thebes.
Each of them had brought the surrounding rural areas and smaller towns under their control, and Athens and Corinth had become major maritime and mercantile powers as well. Athens and Sparta developed a rivalry that dominated Greek politics for generations.
In Sparta, the landed aristocracy retained their power, and the constitution of Lycurgus about B. Sparta dominated the other cities of the Peloponnese with the sole exceptions of Argus and Achaia.
In Athens, by contrast, the monarchy was abolished in B. The aristocrats were followed by the tyranny of Pisistratus and his sons, who made the city a great naval and commercial power. When the Pisistratids were overthrown, Cleisthenes established the world's first democracy B.
But it must be remembered that only a minority of the male inhabitants were citizens, excluding slaves, freedmen, and non-Athenians. The Persian Wars In Ionia the modern Aegean coast of Turkeythe Greek cities, which included great centers such as Miletus and Halicarnassus, were unable to maintain their independence and came under the rule of the Persian Empire in the mid-sixth century B.
The burial mound of the Athenian dead can still be seen at Marathon. Ten years later, Darius's successor, Xerxes I, sent a much more powerful force by land. But the Athenians had evacuated the city by sea, and under Themistocles they defeated the Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamis.
In the course of doing so, Athens enrolled all the island states and some mainland allies into an alliance, called the Delian League because its treasury was kept on the sacred island of Delos. The Spartans, although they had taken part in the war, withdrew into isolation after it, allowing Athens to establish unchallenged naval and commercial power.
Athens was the unchallenged master of the sea, and also the leading commercial power, although Corinth remained a serious rival. The leading statesman of this time was Pericleswho used the tribute paid by the members of the Delian League to build the Parthenon and other great monuments of classical Athens.
By the mid-fifth century B. The wealth of Athens attracted talented people from all over Greece, and also created a wealthy leisure class who became patrons of the arts. The Athenian state also sponsored learning and the arts, particularly architecture.
Athens became the center of Greek literature, philosophyand the arts. Some of the greatest names of Western cultural and intellectual history lived in Athens during this period: The city became, in Pericles's words, "the school of Hellas. After the Greek victory at the Battle of the Eurymedon in B.
After some years of inconclusive war, a year peace was signed between the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League Sparta and her allies. This coincided with the last battle between the Greeks and the Persians, a sea battle off Salamis in Cyprusfollowed by the Peace of Callias B.
The Peloponnesian War In B. The immediate causes of the Peloponnesian War vary from account to account.The Later Uncial Script. The seed of early Greek writing sprouted into a number of different scripts. By the first millenium of our era, Hellenic Koine Greek (ΚΟΙΝΗ just means "common") took over as the spoken language, thanks to Alexander's conquest.
Greek letters were also used for writing Greek numerals. The first nine letters (from alpha to theta) were used for the numbers 1 to 9. The next nine letters (from iota to koppa) were used for multiples of 10 from 10 to Answer: Writing got started in ancient Greece in a fitful way.
The first writing, found in Crete was hieroglyphic in nature. Later the Minoan civilization produced a syllabic writing . Alcman. Alcman (7th cent. BC) was an Ancient Greek choral lyric poet from Sparta.
He is the earliest representative of the Alexandrinian canon of the nine lyric poets (the others being Sappho, Alcaeus, Anacreon, Stesichorus, Ibycus, Pindar and Bacchylides).
The Pronunciation of Ancient Egyptian The issue of the pronunciation of the Ancient Egyptian language has recently become confused by popular presentations that ignore some of the essential and undoubted characteristics of Egyptian hieroglyphics, most importantly that Egyptian, just as today is usually the case with Arabic and Hebrew, did not write vowels -- except in late transcriptions of.
The Macedonians (Greek: Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland initiativeblog.comially an ancient Greek people, they gradually expanded from their homeland along the Haliacmon valley on the northern edge of the Greek world, absorbing or driving out neighbouring non-Greek.