Index survives until the s.
Genocide debate[ edit ] The concept of genocide was defined in by Raphael Lemkin. For Lemkin, genocide was broadly defined and included all attempts to destroy a specific ethnic group, whether strictly physical through mass killings, or cultural or psychological through oppression and destruction of indigenous ways of life.
Historians often draw on broader definitions such as Lemkin's, which sees colonialist violence against indigenous peoples as inherently genocidal. In this view, the concept of " manifest destiny " in the westward expansion from the eastern United States can be seen as contributing to genocide.
However, such deaths were seen, by the Puritans particularly, as the Lord having "cleared our title to what we possess.
In the 16th century, the expansion of European empires led to the conquering of the Americas, Africa, Australia, and Asia. This period of expansion resulted in several instances of massacres, and genocide. Many indigenous peoples, such as the Yukithe Pallawah and Hererowere brought to the brink of extinction.
In some cases, entire tribes were annihilated. Stannard compares the events of colonization in the Americas with the definition of genocide in the UN convention, and writes that "In light of the U. In doing so they refuse to accept that the colonization of America was genocidal by plan, not simply the tragic fate of populations lacking immunity to disease.
The effects of diseases such as smallpoxmeasles and cholera during the first century of colonialism contributed greatly to the death toll, while violence, displacement and warfare by colonizers against the Indians contributed to the death toll in subsequent centuries.
From Wounded Knee to the Present, "It is also apparent that the shared history of the hemisphere is one framed by the dual tragedies of genocide and slavery, both of which are part of the legacy of the European invasions of the past years.
Indigenous people north and south were displaced, died of disease, and were killed by Europeans through slavery, rape, and war. Inabout million people lived in the western hemisphere.
Bythe population of indigenous Americans had declined by percent, or by around million people. Spanish colonization of the Americas[ edit ] See also: Las Casas wrote that the indigenous population on the Spanish colony of Hispaniola had been reduced fromto in a few decades.
In theory, encomienda placed groups of indigenous peoples under Spanish oversight to foster cultural assimilation and conversion to Christianitybut in practice led to the legally sanctioned exploitation of natural resources and forced labor under brutal conditions with a high death rate.
Though the Spaniards did not set out to exterminate the indigenous peoples, believing their numbers to be inexhaustible, their actions led to the annihilation of entire tribes such as the Arawak. Twillingate Scholars have not generally described the process of settler colonialism in Canada as genocidal, although some scholars have argued that it should be recognized as such.
The system was designed to remove children from the influence of their families and culture with the aim of assimilating them into the dominant Canadian culture. There is something dramatically and basically wrong with that. Indigenous women made up only 2. The Commission, however, was not authorized to conclude that physical and biologcial genocide occurred, as such a finding would imply a difficult to prove legal responsibility for the Canadian government.
As a result, the debate about whether the Canadian government also committed physical and biological genocide against Indigenous populations remains open. Yaqui WarsYaqui Uprisingand Battle of Mazocoba The Mexican government's response to the various uprisings of the Yaqui tribe have been likened to genocide particularly under Porfirio Diaz.
One source estimates at least 20, out of these Yaquis were victims of state murders in Sonora. The so-called Pacification of the Araucania by the Chilean army dispossessed the up-to-then independent Mapuche people between the s and the s, as did Argentina with the Conquest of the Desert.
Secretary of War Lewis Cass ordered that no Mandan along with the Arikarathe Creeand the Blackfeet be given smallpox vaccinations, which were provided to other tribes in other areas.
The removal included many members of the CherokeeMuscogee CreekSeminoleChickasawand Choctaw nations, among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory in eastern sections of the present-day state of Oklahoma. About 2,—6, died along the Trail of Tears.
About 17, Cherokees—along with approximately 2, Cherokee-owned black slaves—were removed from their homes. American doctor and missionary Elizur Butler, who made the journey with one party, estimated 4, deaths.
Stannard estimates that during the forced removal from their homelands, following the Indian Removal Act signed into law by President Andrew Jackson inCherokee died, about half the total population. Army killed Lakota peoplemarking the end of the American Indian Wars During the American Indian Wars, the American Army carried out a number of massacres and forced relocations of Indigenous peoples that are sometimes considered genocide.
The Sand Creek Massacrewhich caused outrage in its own time, has been called genocide. General John Chivington led a man force of Colorado Territory militia in a massacre of 70— peaceful Cheyenne and Arapahoabout two-thirds of whom were women, children, and infants. Chivington and his men took scalps and other body parts as trophies, including human fetuses and male and female genitalia.
I have come to kill Indians, and believe it is right and honorable to use any means under God's heaven to kill Indians.Elsewhere, I defined the Hemoclysm as that string of interconnected barbarities which made the Twentieth Century so fascinating for historians and so miserable for real initiativeblog.com, I have listed the sources for determing the body count for the biggest of these, .
American Indian Contributions to the World is the paperback version of the Encyclopedia of American Indian Contributions to the World. The awards it has won and some of the print reviews this book has received are listed below.
The Business of War.
By Wade Frazier. Revised July Introduction. The Business of War. The "Good War" Brown Shirts in America. A Brief History of Western Anti . Little Drummer Boy, Harry Chorale Simeone, Harry Simeone The Effective Reader, D. J Henry Competition and Development - The Power of Competitive Markets, Susan Joekes, Phil Evans Algebra 1 Study Guide and Intervention Workbook, McGraw-Hill .
The American Empire. By Wade Frazier. Revised July Purpose and Disclaimer.
Timeline. Introduction. The New World Before “Discovery,” and the First Contacts. A great book on the mistreatment of the Indian American by the fore fathers of this nation. The treaties made by the US Government with the Indian Americans were worthless pieces of paper.