When to use footnotes in a research paper

Footnotes or endnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Footnotes should match with a superscript number at the end of the sentence referencing the source.

When to use footnotes in a research paper

Prior to learning how to write proper Footnote and Endnote citations, it is essential to first develop a stronger understanding of the MLA format. This specific type of documentation method is most commonly used in the English or other language literature, cultural studies, and gender studies and humanities fields.

MLA guidelines dictate a number of parameters for in-text citation. For example, if the main paragraphs of your essay include reference to work written by someone other than yourself, you must acknowledge the quote or reference, in parenthesis, and follow this up with the surname of the original author and the page number indicting where the reference can be found in the originating source.

Keep in mind that there are a number of things to consider when using the MLA format for sources that are not your own. More specifically, does the original material have two or more authors? Or, does the source come from a journal or a website?

Or maybe even a block quote. Each of these things will necessitate a specific variation of the MLA style be followed. Each and every source utilized in your paper must appear in the bibliography — no exceptions.

Adhere to these guidelines when creating your bibliography The bibliography should always appear on a separate page. The page will be numbered, in sequential order, according to the pages contained in the essay.

When to use footnotes in a research paper

On occasion, if the list is shorter in length, it may be reasonable to include the bibliography on the final page of the essay. However, the general rule of thumb is to use a separate page. The title — Bibliography — or — Works Cited — should always be centered. Remember that a proper MLA heading should always appear in the centre of a page.

There is no need to use bold or italic font or to underline the title. The entire bibliography should be double spaced or 1. Unlike other documentation styles, MLA format citations examples and bibliography texts should reference the authors surnames in alphabetical order. In cases where the surname of the author is not known, it is appropriate to list titles alphabetically.

When more than one work, written by the same author, is to be cited, they should be alphabetized by title and the name of the author included in the initial entry. They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Works Cited, References, or Bibliography section.

What is a footnote: They are used to offer commentary or cite references on a specific part of text in the body of the paper. For example, should an author wish to include an interesting fact or comment about one of the statements made in the paper, but that comment is seemingly irrelevant to the argument being presented, they may choose to include that information in a footnote.

In this scenario, they would embed a symbol as a placeholder for the footnote at the end of the sentence being commented on and reprint the symbol and their commentary in the footnote.

The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is that Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made, while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitled Endnotes or Notes.

If you are still using a typewriter, a superscript number is typed half a space above the line after the last word of the citation, e.

To type a Footnote citation, the same superscript number is put at the beginning of the Footnote at the bottom of the same page where the citation occurs.The style of Chicago/Turabian we use requires footnotes rather than in-text or parenthetical citations.

How to Do Footnotes

Footnotes or endnotes acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the author’s name, publication title, publication information, date of publication, and page number(s) if it is the.

SAMPLE FOR STUDENTS 3 Sample APA Paper for Students Interested in Learning APA Style Before getting started you will notice some things about this paper. How to Do Footnotes. Footnotes are powerful tools, they are used to provide ancillary information and also citations in the footer of a page.

Most often, editors of books, journals and other media will ask that parenthetical information be included in footnotes as a way to control the prose of the document.

When to use footnotes in a research paper

WE CAN HELP YOU With Your Research Paper. How to Use Footnotes. Footnotes must be listed numerically and consecutively, both in your essay and in your Footnote citation. Footnote numbers must be superscripted. In your text, add a superscripted number .

Research Paper: Use Footnotes and Endnotes As you write your first draft, including the introduction, body, and conclusion, add the information or quotations on your note cards to support your ideas. Use footnotes or endnotes to identify the sources of this information.

If the footnotes are compiled on a separate page, the title “Footnotes” should be centered at the top of the page. Avoid formatting the title with bold, italics, underlining, or quotation marks.

Indent the first line of each footnote five spaces from the left margin, and double-space the entire page.

Format for a Research Paper - A Research Guide for Students