Drawing Gallery Action Research: B wanted to better understand the experiences his ninth grade ESL science students had with learning science in order to provide them with more relevant and effective instruction.
At the Workplace and Beyond Carol Van Duzer Project in Adult Immigrant Education PAIE February Listening is a critical element in the competent language performance of adult second language learners, whether they are communicating at school, at work, or in the community.
Through the normal course of a day, listening is used nearly twice as much as speaking and four to five times as much as reading and writing Rivers, In a recent study of Fortune Corporations, Wolvin and Coakley found that listening was perceived to be crucial for communication at work with regards to entry-level employment, job success, general career competence, managerial competency, and effectiveness of relationships between supervisors and subordinates.
Yet listening remains one of the least understood processes in language learning despite the recognition of the critical role it plays both in communication and in language acquisition Morley, As language teaching has moved toward comprehension-based approaches, listening to learn has become an important element in the adult English as a second language ESL classroom Lund, Although most of the activities described have a workplace program context, the same types of activities could be used in any adult ESL class to improve learners' listening in all facets of life: What are some factors that affect the listening process?
The Listener Interest in a topic increases the listener's comprehension; the listener may tune out topics that are not of interest. A listener who is an active participant in a conversation generally has more background knowledge to facilitate understanding of the topic than a listener who is, in effect, eavesdropping on a conversation between writing an action research plan for esl people whose communication has been recorded on an audiotape.
Further, the ability to use negotiation skills, such as asking for clarification, repetition, or definition of points not understood, enable a listener to make sense of the incoming information. The Speaker Colloquial language and reduced forms make comprehension more difficult.
The extent to which the speaker uses these language forms impacts comprehension. The more exposure the listener has to them, the greater the ability to comprehend. A speaker's rate of delivery may be too fast, too slow, or have too many hesitations for a listener to follow.
Learners need practice in recognizing these speech habits as clues to deciphering meaning. Content Content that is familiar is easier to comprehend than content with unfamiliar vocabulary or for which the listener has insufficient background knowledge. Visual Support Visual support, such as video, pictures, diagrams, gestures, facial expressions, and body language, can increase comprehension if the learner is able to correctly interpret it.
What happens when we listen? Although once labeled a passive skill, listening is very much an active process of selecting and interpreting information from auditory and visual clues Richards, ; Rubin, Most of what is known about the listening process stems from research on native language development; however, as the importance of teaching listening comprehension has increased, so has the inquiry into second language listening comprehension.
See Rubin,for a comprehensive review of recent studies. There are several basic processes at work in listening. These do not necessarily occur sequentially; they may occur simultaneously, in rapid succession, or backward and forward as needed. The listener is not usually conscious of performing these steps, nor of switching back and forth between them.
Each of these steps influences the techniques and activities a teacher might choose to incorporate into instruction in order to assist learners in learning to listen as well as listening to learn.
Top-down processing Top-down processing refers to utilizing schemata background knowledge and global understanding to derive meaning from and interpret the message.
For example, in preparing for training on the operation of a new floor polisher, top-down processing is activated as the learner engages in an activity that reviews what the learner already knows about using the old floor polisher.
This might entail discussing the steps in the polishing process; reviewing vocabulary such as switch, on, off, etc. Bottom-up processing Bottom-up processing refers to deriving the meaning of the message based on the incoming language data, from sounds, to words, to grammatical relationships, to meaning.
Stress, rhythm, and intonation also play a role in bottom-up processing. Practice in recognizing statements and questions that differ only in intonation help the learner develop bottom-up processing skills.
Learners need to be aware that both of these processes affect their listening comprehension, and they need to be given opportunities to practice employing each of them.
Delaying production gives learners the opportunity to store information in their memories. It also spares them the trauma of task overload and speaking before they are ready. The silent period may be long or short. It could comprise several class periods of listening activities that foster vocabulary and build comprehension such as in the Total Physical Response TPR approach.
In this approach, the teacher gives a series of commands while demonstrating each one. Learners then show their comprehension by acting out the commands as repeated by the teacher. Learners themselves begin to give the commands as they feel comfortable speaking.
Or, the silent period may consist of learners listening to a tape-recorded conversation two or three times before answering questions about the content. A listening period consistent with the demands of the following productive task works to enhance rather than inhibit language acquisition and helps the more advanced-level learner as well as the beginner.
The following guidelines have been adapted from a variety of sources including BrodBrownDunkelMendelsohnMorleyPetersonRichardsand Rost Listening should be relevant.
Because learners listen with a purpose and listen to things that interest them, accounting for the goals and experiences of the learners will keep motivation and attention high.Great topic ideas for science essays, links to articles to begin your research, writing tips, and step-by-step instructions for writing your paper.
Jan 07, · Action research is a form of applied research whose primary purpose is the improvement of an educational professional's own practice. Action research is equivalent to practitioner research, teacher research, insider research and self-study research when it is undertaken by by teacher educators on their own practice.
More than articles from previous issues of the Internet TESL Journal which is a monthy web magazine for teachers of English as a second language. 🔥Citing and more!
Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. The TESL Reading and Writing Forum.
A forum to share teaching tips, handouts, syllabi, lesson plans and more! Make Beliefs Comix. Make Beliefs Comix, created by acclaimed "Make Beliefs" author Bill Zimmerman, allows kids to create their own comics in English, Spanish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, or Latin.
MASTER IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE Guidelines for Writing an Action Research Project The basic steps • Review your current practice.